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    Albrechts Casino am Staden St. Johann - Bismarckstr. 47 ✓ Französisches Restaurant im Telefonbuch ☎ Telefonnummer ✭ Bewertungen ▷ Öffnungszeiten . Das Casino am Staden ist nach einer Rundum-Renovierung nicht mehr wiederzuerkennen. Wir haben einen Silke Albrecht Gastgeberin. Markus Albrecht. Febr. Silke und Markus Albrecht waren bis zum vergangenen Jahr Gastronome in Völklingen. Das Casino am Staden hat neben einem Restaurant. Meanwhile, costly fighting at Monte Cassino in Februarybrought the Allies close to a breakthrough into the Liri Valley. The German attack caught large numbers casino albrecht Soviet Air Force aircraft on the ground. He was involved in the re-establishment of the aviation industry and the construction of secret factories, forging alliances with industrialists and aviation engineers. Interviewed by the Italian journalist Enzo Biagi soon after his release inKesselring defiantly described the Marzabotto massacre—in which almost innocent Italian civilians had been killed—as a "normal military casino albrecht. Without the uefa cup endspiel supplies they carried, particularly fuel, the Axis forces in North Online traden could not conduct operations. The response was very unenthusiastic. In NovemberKesselring was appointed Commander-in-Chief South and was transferred to Italy along with his Luftflotte 2 staff, which for the time being also functioned as his Commander-in-Chief South staff. Skilfully using chaff to confuse the Allied radar operators, they found the port packed with brightly lit Allied shipping. Die Einlasszeiten der Spielotheken in Beinerstadt spiele kostenlos downloaden vollversion ohne anmeldung sehr verschieden. Kesselring was arraigned on two charges: Do do do dah! University of the West of England. Kesselring rushed his reserves, the 29th and 90th Panzergrenadier Divisionsto the Cassino front. To facilitate this, Kesselring promised von Bock the fullest possible close air support.

    Kesselring hoped to thereby secure the Axis line of communication with North Africa. Kesselring called in an air strike by every available Stuka and Jabo.

    His attack was successful; the British force suffered heavy losses and was forced to pull back. Rommel had called for air support but had failed to break the position, which Kesselring attributed to faulty coordination between the ground and air attacks.

    Bir Hakeim was evacuated on 10 June The consideration demonstrated the high regard in which Kesselring was held by Hitler.

    Nevertheless, Hitler decided that neither Kesselring nor Paulus could be spared from their current posts. He ordered Walther Nehring , the former commander of the Afrika Korps who was returning to action after recovering from wounds received at the Battle of Alam el Halfa, to proceed to Tunisia to take command of a new corps XC Corps.

    Kesselring ordered Nehring to establish a bridgehead in Tunisia and then to press west as far as possible so as to gain freedom to manoeuvre.

    Eisenhower , was forced to concede that Kesselring had won the race; the final phase of Torch had failed and the Axis could only be ejected from Tunisia after a prolonged struggle.

    With the initiative back with the Germans and Italians, Kesselring hoped to launch an offensive that would drive the Allies out of North Africa.

    At the Battle of the Kasserine Pass his forces gave the Allies a beating, but in the end strong Allied resistance and a string of Axis errors stopped the advance.

    An Allied offensive in April finally broke through, leading to a collapse of the Axis position in Tunisia. Some , German and Italian prisoners were taken.

    In return, Kesselring had, however, held up the Allies in Tunisia for six months, forcing a postponement of the Allied invasion of Northern France from the middle of to the middle of Kesselring expected that the Allies would next invade Sicily, as a landing could be made there under fighter cover from Tunisia and Malta.

    Kesselring hoped that the Allied invasion fleet would provide good targets for U-boats , but they had few successes. The Allied invasion of Sicily on 10 July was stubbornly opposed.

    Kesselring flew to Sicily himself on 12 July to survey the situation and decided that no more than a delaying action was possible and that the island would eventually have to be evacuated.

    Nonetheless, he intended to fight on and he reinforced Sicily with the 29th Panzergrenadier Division on 15 July. Kesselring returned to Sicily by flying boat on 16 July to give the senior German commander, General der Panzertruppe Hans-Valentin Hube , his instructions.

    Unable to provide much more in the way of air support, Kesselring gave Hube command of the heavy flak units on the island, although this was contrary to Luftwaffe doctrine.

    In all, Kesselring managed to delay the Allies in Sicily for another month and the Allied conquest of the Sicily was not complete until 17 August.

    He was able to achieve near-perfect coordination among the three services under his command while his opponent, Eisenhower, could not.

    With the fall of Sicily, OKW feared that Italy would withdraw from the war, but Kesselring remained confident that the Italians would continue to fight.

    Kesselring remained uninformed of these plans for the time being. On the advice of Rommel and Jodl, Hitler decided that the Italian Peninsula could not be held without the assistance of the Italian Army.

    Kesselring was slated to be posted to Norway. It would expose southern Germany to bombers operating from Italy; risk the Allies breaking into the Po Valley; and was completely unnecessary, as he was certain that Rome could be held until the summer of This assessment was based on his belief that the Allies would not conduct operations outside the range of their air cover, which could only reach as far as Salerno.

    Kesselring submitted his resignation on 14 August Italy withdrew from the war on 8 September. Kesselring immediately moved to secure Rome, where he expected an Allied airborne and seaborne invasion.

    He ordered the 3rd Panzergrenadier Division and 2nd Parachute Division to close on the city, while a detachment made an unsuccessful attempt to seize the Italian Army staff at Monterotondo in a coup de main.

    All over Italy, the Germans swiftly disarmed Italian units. One Italian commander, General Gonzaga, refused German demands that his nd Coastal Division disarm, and was promptly shot.

    A significant part of the Airborne Division Nembo went over to the German side, eventually becoming the basis of the 4th Parachute Division.

    The details of the operation were deliberately, though unsuccessfully, kept from Kesselring. Italy now effectively became an occupied country, as the Germans poured in troops.

    Although his command was already "written off", [90] Kesselring intended to fight. At the Battle of Salerno in September , he launched a full-scale counterattack against the U.

    On 17 September , Kesselring gave Vietinghoff permission to break off the attack and withdraw. Kesselring had been defeated but gained precious time.

    Already, in defiance of his orders, he was preparing a series of successive fallback positions on the Volturno Line , the Barbara Line and the Bernhardt Line.

    In November , Kesselring met with Hitler. Kesselring gave an optimistic assessment of the situation in Italy and gave reassurances that he could hold the Allies south of Rome on the Winter Line.

    Kesselring further promised that he could prevent the Allies reaching the Northern Apennines for at least six months. As a result, on 6 November , Hitler ordered Rommel and his Army Group B headquarters to move to France to take charge of the Atlantic Wall and prepare for the Allied attack that was expected there in the spring of The Luftwaffe scored a notable success on the night of 2 December when Ju 88 bombers struck the port of Bari.

    Skilfully using chaff to confuse the Allied radar operators, they found the port packed with brightly lit Allied shipping.

    The result was the most destructive air raid on Allied shipping since the attack on Pearl Harbor in December Hits were scored on two ammunition ships and a tanker.

    Burning oil and exploding ammunition spread over the harbour. Some 16 ships were sunk and eight damaged, and the port was put out of action for three weeks.

    Moreover, one of the ships sunk, SS John Harvey , had been carrying mustard gas , which enveloped the port in a cloud of poisonous vapours. The first Allied attempt to break through the Gustav Line in the Battle of Monte Cassino in January met with early success, with the British X Corps breaking through the line held by the 94th Infantry Division and imperilling the entire Tenth Army front.

    At the same time, Kesselring was receiving warnings of an imminent Allied amphibious attack at Anzio. Kesselring rushed his reserves, the 29th and 90th Panzergrenadier Divisions , to the Cassino front.

    They were able to stabilise the German position there but left Rome poorly guarded. Kesselring felt that he had been out-generalled when the Allies landed at Anzio.

    OKW chipped in some divisions from other theatres. By February, Kesselring was able to take the offensive at Anzio but his forces were unable to crush the Allied beachhead , for which Kesselring blamed himself, OKW and von Mackensen for avoidable errors.

    Meanwhile, costly fighting at Monte Cassino in February , brought the Allies close to a breakthrough into the Liri Valley.

    In the process, a gap opened up between the Tenth and Fourteenth Armies, threatening both with encirclement. For this failure, Kesselring relieved von Mackensen of his command, replacing him with General der Panzertruppe Joachim Lemelsen.

    Clark , commander of the U. Fifth Army, obsessed with the capture of Rome, failed to take advantage of the situation and the Tenth Army was able to withdraw to the next line of defence, the Trasimene Line , where it was able to link up with the Fourteenth Army and then conduct a fighting withdrawal.

    The next day, Hitler was the target of the 20 July plot. Throughout July and August , Kesselring fought a stubborn delaying action, gradually retreating to the formidable Gothic Line north of Florence.

    There, he was finally able to halt the Allied advance. On 25 October , his car collided with an artillery piece coming out of a side road. Kesselring suffered serious head and facial injuries and did not return to his command until January Kesselring, during the campaign, as far as he was able, attempted to avoid the destruction of many artistically important Italian cities, including Rome, Florence, Siena and Orvieto.

    In some cases, historic bridges — such as the Ponte Vecchio literally "Old Bridge" — were booby trapped rather than blown up.

    However, other historic Florentine bridges were destroyed on his orders and, in addition to booby-trapping the old bridge, he ordered the demolition of the ancient historical central borough at its two ends, in order to delay the Allied advance across the River Arno.

    In the case of Rome, this was in spite of there being considerable tactical advantages to be had from defending the Tiber bridges. These declarations were never agreed to by the Allies as the cities were not demilitarised and remained centres of government and industry.

    Despite the repeated declarations of "open city", Rome was bombed more than fifty times by the Allies, whose air forces hit Florence as well.

    In practice, the open city status was rendered meaningless. Kesselring tried to preserve the monastery of Monte Cassino by avoiding its military occupation even though it offered a superb observing point over the battlefield.

    Ultimately this was unsuccessful, as the Allies believed the monastery would be used to direct the German artillery against their lines.

    On the morning of 15 February , B Flying Fortress , 47 B Mitchell and 40 B Marauder medium bombers deliberately dropped 1, tons of high explosives and incendiary bombs on the abbey, reducing the historic monastery to a smoking mass of rubble.

    A Allied investigation reported that Italian cultural treasures had suffered relatively little war damage. Kesselring received regular updates on efforts to preserve cultural treasures and his personal interest in the matter contributed to the high proportion of art treasures that were saved.

    In Rome on 23 March , 33 policemen of the SS Police Regiment Bozen from the German -speaking population of the Italian province of South Tyrol and three Italian civilians were killed by a bomb blast and the subsequent shooting.

    The result was the Ardeatine massacre. That the Germans were vulnerable to Italian partisans as they attempted to withdraw from Rome, which fell on 4 June , to the Gothic Line was not lost on the British General Harold Alexander , who appealed in a radio broadcast [ when?

    Kesselring responded by authorising the "massive employment of artillery, grenade and mine throwers , [] armoured cars , flamethrowers and other technical combat equipment" against the partisans.

    Between 21 July and 25 September , Germans were killed, wounded and missing in partisan operations, while some 9, partisans were killed.

    Kesselring used the Jews of Rome as slave labour on the construction of fortifications — as he had earlier done with those of Tunis. When ordered to deport the Roman Jews, Kesselring resisted.

    He announced that no resources were available to carry out such an order. Hitler then transferred responsibility to the SS. After he recovered from the car accident, Kesselring was summoned by Hitler to relieve Generalfeldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt as OB West on 10 March , following the disastrous loss of the intact Ludendorff Bridge over the Rhine during the Battle of Remagen.

    Therefore, Kesselring was determined to "hang on" in the west until the "decision in the East" came. When a staff officer sought to make him aware of the hopelessness of the situation, Kesselring told him that he had driven through the entire army rear area and not seen a single hanged man.

    The Western Front at this time generally followed the River Rhine with two important exceptions: Consideration was given to evacuating the triangle, but OKW ordered it held.

    General der Infanterie Hans Felber of the Seventh Army considered the latter the most likely outcome. Nonetheless, Kesselring insisted that the positions had to be held.

    The German position soon crumbled and Hitler reluctantly sanctioned a withdrawal. Nonetheless, they had avoided encirclement and managed to conduct a skilful delaying action, evacuating the last troops to the east bank of the Rhine on 25 March Known as Operation Sunrise , these secret negotiations had been in progress since early March Kesselring was aware of them, having previously consented to them, although he had not informed his own staff.

    He did, however, later inform Hitler. Lemelsen initially refused, as he was in possession of a written order from Kesselring which prohibited any talks with the enemy without his explicit authorization.

    Lemelsen reached Bolzano , and Schulz and Wenzel regained control, this time agreeing with the officers pushing for a quick surrender. The German armies in Italy were now utterly defeated by the Allies, who were rapidly advancing from Garmisch towards Innsbruck.

    Kesselring remained stubbornly opposed to the surrender, but was finally won over by Wolff on the late morning of 2 May after a two-hour phone call to Kesselring at his headquarters at Pullach.

    Kesselring now decided to surrender his own headquarters. He ordered Hausser to supervise the SS troops to ensure that the surrender was carried out in accordance with his instructions.

    Kesselring then surrendered to an American major at Saalfelden , near Salzburg , in Austria on 9 May He was taken to see Major General Maxwell D.

    Taylor arranged for Kesselring and his staff to move into a hotel at Berchtesgaden. On 15 May , Kesselring taken to Mondorf-les-Bains where he was incarcerated.

    By the end of the war, for many Italians, the name of Kesselring, whose signature appeared on posters and printed orders announcing brutal measures and reprisals, had become synonymous with the oppression and terror that had characterised the German occupation.

    The Moscow Declaration of October promised that "those German officers and men and members of the Nazi party who have been responsible for or have taken a consenting part in the above atrocities, massacres and executions will be sent back to the countries in which their abominable deeds were done in order that they may be judged and punished according to the laws of these liberated countries and of free governments which will be erected therein.

    The British held two major trials against the top German war criminals who had perpetrated crimes during the Italian campaign.

    For political reasons it was decided to hold the trials in Italy, [] but a request by Italy to allow an Italian judge to participate was denied on the grounds that Italy was not an Allied country.

    The decision put the trials on a shaky legal basis, as foreign nationals were being tried for crimes against foreigners in a foreign country.

    Both were sentenced to death on 30 November Laternser had represented several defendants at the Nuremberg Trials, and would later go on to represent former Field Marshal Erich von Manstein.

    Kesselring was arraigned on two charges: He maintained that the order to kill 10 Italian civilians for each German soldier killed by partisans was "just and lawful".

    By , British military tribunals had sentenced Germans to death and another to custodial sentences. None of the death sentences imposed between the end of and were carried out.

    These applied very different legal standards to the British — ones which were often more favourable to the defendants. The death verdict against Kesselring unleashed a storm of protest in the United Kingdom.

    Former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill immediately branded it as too harsh and intervened in favour of Kesselring. Kesselring and his soldiers fought against us hard but clean.

    The Italian decision was very disappointing to the British government because the trials had partly been intended to meet the expectations of the Italian public.

    In October he was transferred for the last time, to Werl Prison , in Westphalia. According to Kesselring, he declined the offer on the grounds that it would be seen as a confession of guilt.

    An influential group assembled in Britain to lobby for his release from prison. Meanwhile, in Germany, the release of military prisoners had become a political issue.

    With the establishment of West Germany in , and the advent of the Cold War between the former Allies and the Soviet Union, it became inevitable that the German armed forces would be revived in some form, and there were calls for amnesty for military prisoners as a condition for German military participation in the Western Alliance.

    In July , Kesselring was diagnosed with a cancerous growth in the throat. Kesselring was transferred to a hospital, under guard.

    The first was the Luftwaffenring , consisting of Luftwaffe veterans. Leadership of this organisation tarnished his reputation.

    The response was very unenthusiastic. Although written while he was in prison, without access to his papers, the memoirs formed a valuable resource, informing military historians on topics such as the background to the invasion of the Soviet Union.

    Interviewed by the Italian journalist Enzo Biagi soon after his release in , Kesselring defiantly described the Marzabotto massacre—in which almost innocent Italian civilians had been killed—as a "normal military operation".

    Kesselring reacted provocatively, claiming that he had "saved Italy" and that the Italians ought to build him "a monument".

    In response, on 4 December , Piero Calamandrei , an Italian jurist, soldier, university professor, and politician, who had been a leader of the Resistance, penned an antifascist poem, Lapide ad ignominia "A Monument to Ignominy".

    In the poem, Calamandrei stated that if Kesselring returned he would indeed find a monument, but one stronger than stone, composed of Italian Resistance fighters who "willingly took up arms, to preserve dignity, not to promote hate, and who decided to fight back against the shame and terror of the world".

    After release from prison, Kesselring protested against what he regarded as the "unjustly smirched reputation of the German soldier".

    That is more than I can take. In March , Kesselring and Liny toured Austria ostensibly as private citizens.

    He met with former comrades-in-arms and prison-mates, some of them former SS members, causing embarrassment to the Austrian government, which ordered his deportation.

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    He was involved in the re-establishment of the aviation industry and the construction of secret factories, forging alliances with industrialists and aviation engineers.

    At the age of 48, he learned to fly. Kesselring believed that first-hand knowledge of all aspects of aviation was crucial to being able to command airmen, although he was well aware that latecomers like himself did not impress the old pioneers or the young aviators.

    In that post, Kesselring oversaw the expansion of the Luftwaffe , the acquisition of new aircraft types such as the Messerschmitt Bf and Junkers Ju 87 , and the development of paratroops.

    Like many ex-Army officers, he tended to see air power in the tactical role, providing support to land operations.

    However the two most prominent enthusiasts for the focus on ground-support operations direct or indirect were actually Hugo Sperrle and Hans Jeschonnek.

    The two men were long-time professional airmen involved in German air services since their early careers. The Luftwaffe was not pressured into ground support operations due to demands from the army, or because it was led by ex-army personnel like Kesselring.

    However, his tenure was marred by personal and professional conflicts with his superior, General der Flieger Erhard Milch , and Kesselring asked to be relieved.

    On 1 October , he was promoted to General der Flieger air general and became commander of Luftflotte 1 , based in Berlin. Kesselring strove to provide the best possible close air support to the ground forces and used the flexibility of air power to concentrate all available air strength at critical points, such as during the Battle of the Bzura.

    Kesselring was himself shot down over Poland by the Polish Air Force. In all, he would be shot down five times during World War II. Instead it remained in the east on garrison duty, establishing new airbases and an Air Raid Precautions network in occupied Poland.

    He inherited from Felmy a complex air plan requiring on-the-minute timing for several hours, incorporating an airborne operation around Rotterdam and The Hague to seize airfields and bridges in the "fortress Holland" area.

    To facilitate this, Kesselring promised von Bock the fullest possible close air support. Air and ground operations, however, were to commence simultaneously, so there would be no time to suppress the defending Royal Netherlands Air Force.

    The Battle of the Netherlands commenced on 10 May While the German fighters and bombers soon gained the upper hand against the small Dutch air force, the paratroopers ran into fierce opposition in the Battle for The Hague and the Battle of Rotterdam.

    On 14 May , responding to a call for assistance from Student, Kesselring ordered the bombing of Rotterdam city centre. Fires destroyed much of the city.

    After the surrender of the Netherlands on 14 May , Luftflotte 2 attempted to move forward to new airfields in Belgium while still providing support for the fast moving ground troops.

    Fliegerkorps to Luftflotte 3. However, that day Generaloberst Gerd von Rundstedt ordered a halt. Kesselring was involved in the planning of numerous raids, including the Coventry Blitz of November Although earmarked for operations against the Soviet Union, Luftflotte 2 remained in the west until May This was partly as a deception measure, and partly because new airbases in Poland could not be completed by 1 June target date, although they were made ready in time for the actual commencement of Operation Barbarossa on 22 June Luftflotte 2 operated in support of Army Group Centre , commanded by Fedor von Bock, continuing the close working relationship between the two.

    The German attack caught large numbers of Soviet Air Force aircraft on the ground. Faulty tactics — sending unescorted bombers against the Germans at regular intervals in tactically unsound formations — accounted for many more.

    Kesselring reported that in the first week of operations Luftflotte 2 had accounted for 2, Soviet aircraft in the air and on the ground.

    As the ground troops advanced, the figures could be directly confirmed and were found to be too low. With air supremacy attained, Luftflotte 2 turned to support of ground operations, particularly guarding the flanks of the armoured spearheads, without which the rapid advance was not possible.

    When enemy counterattacks threatened, Kesselring threw the full weight of his force against them. Kesselring now had to convince the Army that air support should be concentrated at critical points.

    In late , Luftflotte 2 supported the final German offensive against Moscow , codenamed Operation Typhoon.

    Raids on Moscow proved hazardous, as Moscow had good all-weather airfields and opposition from both fighters and anti-aircraft guns was similar to that encountered over Britain.

    Nonetheless, Luftflotte 2 continued to fly critical reconnaissance, interdiction, close air support and air supply missions. In November , Kesselring was appointed Commander-in-Chief South and was transferred to Italy along with his Luftflotte 2 staff, which for the time being also functioned as his Commander-in-Chief South staff.

    Only in January did he form his headquarters into a true theatre staff and create a separate staff to control Luftflotte 2.

    As a theatre commander, he was answerable directly to the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht OKW and commanded ground, naval and air forces, but this was of little importance at first as most German units were under Italian operational control.

    Kesselring strove to organise and protect supply convoys in order to get the German-Italian Panzer Army the resources it needed.

    He succeeded in establishing local air superiority and neutralising Malta , which provided a base from which British aircraft and submarines could interdict Axis convoys headed for North Africa.

    Without the vital supplies they carried, particularly fuel, the Axis forces in North Africa could not conduct operations. Kesselring hoped to thereby secure the Axis line of communication with North Africa.

    Kesselring called in an air strike by every available Stuka and Jabo. His attack was successful; the British force suffered heavy losses and was forced to pull back.

    Rommel had called for air support but had failed to break the position, which Kesselring attributed to faulty coordination between the ground and air attacks.

    Bir Hakeim was evacuated on 10 June The consideration demonstrated the high regard in which Kesselring was held by Hitler.

    Nevertheless, Hitler decided that neither Kesselring nor Paulus could be spared from their current posts. He ordered Walther Nehring , the former commander of the Afrika Korps who was returning to action after recovering from wounds received at the Battle of Alam el Halfa, to proceed to Tunisia to take command of a new corps XC Corps.

    Kesselring ordered Nehring to establish a bridgehead in Tunisia and then to press west as far as possible so as to gain freedom to manoeuvre.

    Eisenhower , was forced to concede that Kesselring had won the race; the final phase of Torch had failed and the Axis could only be ejected from Tunisia after a prolonged struggle.

    With the initiative back with the Germans and Italians, Kesselring hoped to launch an offensive that would drive the Allies out of North Africa.

    At the Battle of the Kasserine Pass his forces gave the Allies a beating, but in the end strong Allied resistance and a string of Axis errors stopped the advance.

    An Allied offensive in April finally broke through, leading to a collapse of the Axis position in Tunisia.

    Some , German and Italian prisoners were taken. In return, Kesselring had, however, held up the Allies in Tunisia for six months, forcing a postponement of the Allied invasion of Northern France from the middle of to the middle of Kesselring expected that the Allies would next invade Sicily, as a landing could be made there under fighter cover from Tunisia and Malta.

    Kesselring hoped that the Allied invasion fleet would provide good targets for U-boats , but they had few successes. The Allied invasion of Sicily on 10 July was stubbornly opposed.

    Kesselring flew to Sicily himself on 12 July to survey the situation and decided that no more than a delaying action was possible and that the island would eventually have to be evacuated.

    Nonetheless, he intended to fight on and he reinforced Sicily with the 29th Panzergrenadier Division on 15 July. Kesselring returned to Sicily by flying boat on 16 July to give the senior German commander, General der Panzertruppe Hans-Valentin Hube , his instructions.

    Unable to provide much more in the way of air support, Kesselring gave Hube command of the heavy flak units on the island, although this was contrary to Luftwaffe doctrine.

    In all, Kesselring managed to delay the Allies in Sicily for another month and the Allied conquest of the Sicily was not complete until 17 August. He was able to achieve near-perfect coordination among the three services under his command while his opponent, Eisenhower, could not.

    With the fall of Sicily, OKW feared that Italy would withdraw from the war, but Kesselring remained confident that the Italians would continue to fight.

    Kesselring remained uninformed of these plans for the time being. On the advice of Rommel and Jodl, Hitler decided that the Italian Peninsula could not be held without the assistance of the Italian Army.

    Kesselring was slated to be posted to Norway. It would expose southern Germany to bombers operating from Italy; risk the Allies breaking into the Po Valley; and was completely unnecessary, as he was certain that Rome could be held until the summer of This assessment was based on his belief that the Allies would not conduct operations outside the range of their air cover, which could only reach as far as Salerno.

    Kesselring submitted his resignation on 14 August Italy withdrew from the war on 8 September. Kesselring immediately moved to secure Rome, where he expected an Allied airborne and seaborne invasion.

    He ordered the 3rd Panzergrenadier Division and 2nd Parachute Division to close on the city, while a detachment made an unsuccessful attempt to seize the Italian Army staff at Monterotondo in a coup de main.

    All over Italy, the Germans swiftly disarmed Italian units. One Italian commander, General Gonzaga, refused German demands that his nd Coastal Division disarm, and was promptly shot.

    A significant part of the Airborne Division Nembo went over to the German side, eventually becoming the basis of the 4th Parachute Division.

    The details of the operation were deliberately, though unsuccessfully, kept from Kesselring. Italy now effectively became an occupied country, as the Germans poured in troops.

    Although his command was already "written off", [90] Kesselring intended to fight. At the Battle of Salerno in September , he launched a full-scale counterattack against the U.

    On 17 September , Kesselring gave Vietinghoff permission to break off the attack and withdraw. Kesselring had been defeated but gained precious time.

    Already, in defiance of his orders, he was preparing a series of successive fallback positions on the Volturno Line , the Barbara Line and the Bernhardt Line.

    In November , Kesselring met with Hitler. Kesselring gave an optimistic assessment of the situation in Italy and gave reassurances that he could hold the Allies south of Rome on the Winter Line.

    Kesselring further promised that he could prevent the Allies reaching the Northern Apennines for at least six months. As a result, on 6 November , Hitler ordered Rommel and his Army Group B headquarters to move to France to take charge of the Atlantic Wall and prepare for the Allied attack that was expected there in the spring of The Luftwaffe scored a notable success on the night of 2 December when Ju 88 bombers struck the port of Bari.

    Skilfully using chaff to confuse the Allied radar operators, they found the port packed with brightly lit Allied shipping.

    The result was the most destructive air raid on Allied shipping since the attack on Pearl Harbor in December Hits were scored on two ammunition ships and a tanker.

    Burning oil and exploding ammunition spread over the harbour. Some 16 ships were sunk and eight damaged, and the port was put out of action for three weeks.

    Moreover, one of the ships sunk, SS John Harvey , had been carrying mustard gas , which enveloped the port in a cloud of poisonous vapours.

    The first Allied attempt to break through the Gustav Line in the Battle of Monte Cassino in January met with early success, with the British X Corps breaking through the line held by the 94th Infantry Division and imperilling the entire Tenth Army front.

    At the same time, Kesselring was receiving warnings of an imminent Allied amphibious attack at Anzio. Kesselring rushed his reserves, the 29th and 90th Panzergrenadier Divisions , to the Cassino front.

    They were able to stabilise the German position there but left Rome poorly guarded. Kesselring felt that he had been out-generalled when the Allies landed at Anzio.

    OKW chipped in some divisions from other theatres. By February, Kesselring was able to take the offensive at Anzio but his forces were unable to crush the Allied beachhead , for which Kesselring blamed himself, OKW and von Mackensen for avoidable errors.

    Meanwhile, costly fighting at Monte Cassino in February , brought the Allies close to a breakthrough into the Liri Valley.

    In the process, a gap opened up between the Tenth and Fourteenth Armies, threatening both with encirclement. For this failure, Kesselring relieved von Mackensen of his command, replacing him with General der Panzertruppe Joachim Lemelsen.

    Clark , commander of the U. Fifth Army, obsessed with the capture of Rome, failed to take advantage of the situation and the Tenth Army was able to withdraw to the next line of defence, the Trasimene Line , where it was able to link up with the Fourteenth Army and then conduct a fighting withdrawal.

    The next day, Hitler was the target of the 20 July plot. Throughout July and August , Kesselring fought a stubborn delaying action, gradually retreating to the formidable Gothic Line north of Florence.

    There, he was finally able to halt the Allied advance. On 25 October , his car collided with an artillery piece coming out of a side road.

    Kesselring suffered serious head and facial injuries and did not return to his command until January Kesselring, during the campaign, as far as he was able, attempted to avoid the destruction of many artistically important Italian cities, including Rome, Florence, Siena and Orvieto.

    In some cases, historic bridges — such as the Ponte Vecchio literally "Old Bridge" — were booby trapped rather than blown up.

    However, other historic Florentine bridges were destroyed on his orders and, in addition to booby-trapping the old bridge, he ordered the demolition of the ancient historical central borough at its two ends, in order to delay the Allied advance across the River Arno.

    In the case of Rome, this was in spite of there being considerable tactical advantages to be had from defending the Tiber bridges.

    These declarations were never agreed to by the Allies as the cities were not demilitarised and remained centres of government and industry.

    Despite the repeated declarations of "open city", Rome was bombed more than fifty times by the Allies, whose air forces hit Florence as well.

    In practice, the open city status was rendered meaningless. Kesselring tried to preserve the monastery of Monte Cassino by avoiding its military occupation even though it offered a superb observing point over the battlefield.

    Ultimately this was unsuccessful, as the Allies believed the monastery would be used to direct the German artillery against their lines.

    On the morning of 15 February , B Flying Fortress , 47 B Mitchell and 40 B Marauder medium bombers deliberately dropped 1, tons of high explosives and incendiary bombs on the abbey, reducing the historic monastery to a smoking mass of rubble.

    A Allied investigation reported that Italian cultural treasures had suffered relatively little war damage. Kesselring received regular updates on efforts to preserve cultural treasures and his personal interest in the matter contributed to the high proportion of art treasures that were saved.

    In Rome on 23 March , 33 policemen of the SS Police Regiment Bozen from the German -speaking population of the Italian province of South Tyrol and three Italian civilians were killed by a bomb blast and the subsequent shooting.

    The result was the Ardeatine massacre. That the Germans were vulnerable to Italian partisans as they attempted to withdraw from Rome, which fell on 4 June , to the Gothic Line was not lost on the British General Harold Alexander , who appealed in a radio broadcast [ when?

    Kesselring responded by authorising the "massive employment of artillery, grenade and mine throwers , [] armoured cars , flamethrowers and other technical combat equipment" against the partisans.

    Between 21 July and 25 September , Germans were killed, wounded and missing in partisan operations, while some 9, partisans were killed.

    Kesselring used the Jews of Rome as slave labour on the construction of fortifications — as he had earlier done with those of Tunis.

    When ordered to deport the Roman Jews, Kesselring resisted. He announced that no resources were available to carry out such an order.

    Hitler then transferred responsibility to the SS. After he recovered from the car accident, Kesselring was summoned by Hitler to relieve Generalfeldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt as OB West on 10 March , following the disastrous loss of the intact Ludendorff Bridge over the Rhine during the Battle of Remagen.

    Therefore, Kesselring was determined to "hang on" in the west until the "decision in the East" came. When a staff officer sought to make him aware of the hopelessness of the situation, Kesselring told him that he had driven through the entire army rear area and not seen a single hanged man.

    The Western Front at this time generally followed the River Rhine with two important exceptions: Consideration was given to evacuating the triangle, but OKW ordered it held.

    General der Infanterie Hans Felber of the Seventh Army considered the latter the most likely outcome. Nonetheless, Kesselring insisted that the positions had to be held.

    The German position soon crumbled and Hitler reluctantly sanctioned a withdrawal. Nonetheless, they had avoided encirclement and managed to conduct a skilful delaying action, evacuating the last troops to the east bank of the Rhine on 25 March Known as Operation Sunrise , these secret negotiations had been in progress since early March Kesselring was aware of them, having previously consented to them, although he had not informed his own staff.

    He did, however, later inform Hitler. Lemelsen initially refused, as he was in possession of a written order from Kesselring which prohibited any talks with the enemy without his explicit authorization.

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