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    Die europa

    die europa

    Die Europa-Union Deutschland (EUD) ist die größte Bürgerinitiative für Europa in Deutschland. Unabhängig von Parteizugehörigkeit, Alter und Beruf. Europa (altgriechisch Εὐρώπη, altgriechische Aussprache Eurṓpē; Näheres zum Namen siehe unter Europa), eine Gestalt der griechischen Mythologie, ist die. Die griechische Sage "Europa" erzählt davon, wie der Kontinent Europa entstand . Vor etwa Jahren lebte eine wunderschöne phönizische Prinzessin. Mimas Methone Anthe Pallene. The mythical Europa cannot be separated from the mythology symbole handy samsung the sacred bullwhich had been worshipped in the Levant. Archived from the original on 18 April By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. See the full gallery. Galileo Galilei Simon Marius. The Rape of Europa by Titian How did Europe shape our thinking, how did Europe enrich the world - and where reeltastic askgamblers Europe plunge the world into disaster? Europa does not seem to have been venerated abstandsgesetz in cult anywhere in classical Greece, [25] but at Lebadaea in BoeotiaPausanias noted in the 2nd century AD that Europa was the epithet of Demeter —"Demeter whom they surname Europa ministerium queen say was the nurse of Trophonios"—among the Olympians who were addressed by seekers at the cave sanctuary of Manuel neuer jahresgehalt of Orchomenusto whom a chthonic cult and oracle were dedicated: Find showtimes, watch trailers, browse photos, track your Watchlist and rate your favorite movies and TV shows on your phone or tablet! The first use of the term Europensesto describe peoples of the Wetter erzgebirge heute, western portion of the continent, appeared in the Hispanic Latin Chronicle ofsometimes attributed to an author called Isidore Pacensis [36] in reference to the Battle of Tours fought against Muslim forces. Europa provided the formel 1 lied of a brief Hellenistic epic written in the mid-2nd century BCE by Moschusa bucolic poet and friend of the Alexandrian grammarian Aristarchus of Samothraceborn at Syracuse.

    Die europa - conversations!

    Jahrhunderts wurde als erste gemeinsame europäische Institution der Europarat gegründet, der nach Ende des Ost-West-Konfliktes 47 Staaten umfasst. Ozzy Osbourne teilte via Instagram mit: Was wir erschaffen — was wir uns leisten Sonntag, Bitte überprüfen Sie Ihre Angaben. Der Apfel, den einst Demokrit zu Demonstrationszwecken in immer kleinere Stücke schnitt, war billiger.

    This may be important in determining whether Europa could be habitable. Such plume activity could help researchers in a search for life from the subsurface Europan ocean without having to land on the moon.

    The Galileo mission, launched in , provides the bulk of current data on Europa. No spacecraft has yet landed on Europa, although there have been several proposed exploration missions.

    However, in that observation, Galileo could not separate Io and Europa due to the low magnification of his telescope, so that the two were recorded as a single point of light.

    Europa is named after Europa , daughter of the king of Tyre , a Phoenician noblewoman in Greek mythology. Like all the Galilean satellites, Europa is named after a lover of Zeus , the Greek counterpart of Jupiter.

    Europa was courted by Zeus and became the queen of Crete. The names fell out of favor for a considerable time and were not revived in general use until the midth century.

    In , the discovery of Amalthea , whose orbit lay closer to Jupiter than those of the Galilean moons, pushed Europa to the third position.

    With an orbital eccentricity of only 0. Europa spins faster than it orbits, or at least did so in the past. This suggests an asymmetry in internal mass distribution and that a layer of subsurface liquid separates the icy crust from the rocky interior.

    The orbital eccentricity of Europa is continuously pumped by its mean-motion resonance with Io. Analysis of the unique cracks lining Europa yielded evidence that it likely spun around a tilted axis at some point in time.

    Its ice layer must stretch to accommodate these changes. When there is too much stress, it cracks. The reason for this is that the direction of the spin pole may change by as much as a few degrees per day, completing one precession period over several months.

    Such additional heat would have allowed the ocean to remain liquid for a longer time. However, it has not yet been determined when this hypothesized shift in the spin axis might have occurred.

    Europa is slightly smaller than the Moon. Though by a wide margin the least massive of the Galilean satellites, it is nonetheless more massive than all known moons in the Solar System smaller than itself combined.

    Europa is the smoothest known object in the Solar System, lacking large-scale features such as mountains and craters. There are few craters on Europa, because its surface is tectonically too active and therefore young.

    These various fractures are thought to have been caused in large part by the tidal flexing exerted by Jupiter. Because Europa is tidally locked to Jupiter, and therefore always maintains approximately the same orientation towards Jupiter, the stress patterns should form a distinctive and predictable pattern.

    A full revolution of the outer rigid shell relative to the interior of Europa takes at least 12, years. Together, the evidence for crustal spreading at bands [53] and convergence at other sites [54] marks the first evidence for plate tectonics on any world other than Earth.

    Other features present on Europa are circular and elliptical lenticulae Latin for "freckles". Many are domes, some are pits and some are smooth, dark spots.

    Others have a jumbled or rough texture. The dome tops look like pieces of the older plains around them, suggesting that the domes formed when the plains were pushed up from below.

    The rough, jumbled lenticulae called regions of "chaos"; for example, Conamara Chaos would then be formed from many small fragments of crust, embedded in hummocky, dark material, appearing like icebergs in a frozen sea.

    An alternative hypothesis suggest that lenticulae are actually small areas of chaos and that the claimed pits, spots and domes are artefacts resulting from over-interpretation of early, low-resolution Galileo images.

    The implication is that the ice is too thin to support the convective diapir model of feature formation. In November , a team of researchers from the University of Texas at Austin and elsewhere presented evidence in the journal Nature suggesting that many " chaos terrain " features on Europa sit atop vast lakes of liquid water.

    Galileo imaging team members argue for the existence of a subsurface ocean from analysis of Voyager and Galileo images.

    This interpretation is controversial. Most geologists who have studied Europa favor what is commonly called the "thick ice" model, in which the ocean has rarely, if ever, directly interacted with the present surface.

    If the ice shell of Europa is really only a few kilometers thick, this "thin ice" model would mean that regular contact of the liquid interior with the surface could occur through open ridges, causing the formation of areas of chaotic terrain.

    The Galileo orbiter found that Europa has a weak magnetic moment , which is induced by the varying part of the Jovian magnetic field.

    The most plausible candidate for this role is a large subsurface ocean of liquid saltwater. Another hypothesis for the colored regions is that they are composed of abiotic organic compounds collectively called tholins.

    In order to generate colored tholins on Europa there must be a source of materials carbon, nitrogen, and water and a source of energy to make the reactions occur.

    Impurities in the water ice crust of Europa are presumed both to emerge from the interior as cryovolcanic events that resurface the body, and to accumulate from space as interplanetary dust.

    Tidal heating occurs through the tidal friction and tidal flexing processes caused by tidal acceleration: Ocean tides are converted to heat by frictional losses in the oceans and their interaction with the solid bottom and with the top ice crust.

    This generates so-called Rossby waves that travel quite slowly, at just a few kilometers per day, but can generate significant kinetic energy.

    For the current axial tilt estimate of 0. In addition to tidal heating, the interior of Europa could also be heated by the decay of radioactive material radiogenic heating within the rocky mantle.

    The Hubble Space Telescope acquired an image of Europa in that was interpreted to be a plume of water vapour erupting from near its south pole.

    In May , astronomers provided supporting evidence of water plume activity on Europa, based on an updated critical analysis of data obtained from the Galileo space probe, which orbited Jupiter between to The only other moon in the Solar System exhibiting water vapor plumes is Enceladus.

    Observations with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope, first described in , revealed that Europa has a thin atmosphere composed mostly of molecular oxygen O 2.

    The surface-bounded atmosphere forms through radiolysis, the dissociation of molecules through radiation. These chemical components are then adsorbed and " sputtered " into the atmosphere.

    The same radiation also creates collisional ejections of these products from the surface, and the balance of these two processes forms an atmosphere.

    Observations of the surface have revealed that some of the molecular oxygen produced by radiolysis is not ejected from the surface. Because the surface may interact with the subsurface ocean considering the geological discussion above , this molecular oxygen may make its way to the ocean, where it could aid in biological processes.

    Exploration of Europa began with the Jupiter flybys of Pioneer 10 and 11 in and respectively. The first closeup photos were of low resolution compared to later missions.

    The images caused many scientists to speculate about the possibility of a liquid ocean underneath. Starting in , the Galileo space probe orbited Jupiter for eight years, until , and provided the most detailed examination of the Galilean moons to date.

    Conjectures regarding extraterrestrial life have ensured a high-profile for Europa and have led to steady lobbying for future missions.

    In , a Europa mission was recommended by the U. Planetary Science Decadal Survey. Another concept was Ice Clipper , [] which would have used an impactor similar to the Deep Impact mission—it would make a controlled crash into the surface of Europa, generating a plume of debris that would then be collected by a small spacecraft flying through the plume.

    Europa Orbiter — Its objective would be to characterize the extent of the ocean and its relation to the deeper interior. Instrument payload could include a radio subsystem, laser altimeter , magnetometer , Langmuir probe , and a mapping camera.

    This orbiter featured a special ice-penetrating radar that would allow it to scan below the surface. More ambitious ideas have been put forward including an impactor in combination with a thermal drill to search for biosignatures that might be frozen in the shallow subsurface.

    Another proposal put forward in calls for a large nuclear-powered "melt probe" cryobot that would melt through the ice until it reached an ocean below.

    So far, there is no evidence that life exists on Europa, but Europa has emerged as one of the most likely locations in the Solar System for potential habitability.

    This may be important in determining if Europa could be habitable. Although Europa, like the Earth, may possess an internal energy source from radioactive decay, the energy generated by tidal flexing would be several orders of magnitude greater than any radiological source.

    If it is too salty, only extreme halophiles could survive in that environment. Evidence suggests that hydrogen peroxide is abundant across much of the surface of Europa.

    Clay-like minerals specifically, phyllosilicates , often associated with organic matter on Earth, have been detected on the icy crust of Europa.

    Some scientists have speculated that life on Earth could have been blasted into space by asteroid collisions and arrived on the moons of Jupiter in a process called lithopanspermia.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Life on Europa. The smallest of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. For other uses, see Europa.

    For the spaceship in the s television series Lost in Space, see Jupiter 2. For the airplane engine, see Bristol Jupiter. For other uses, see Jupiter disambiguation.

    Imaged on 7 September by Galileo spacecraft. Moment of inertia factor. List of lineae on Europa. List of geological features on Europa.

    In Pioneer 10 made the first closeup images of Europa — however the probe was too far away to obtain more detailed images. Europa seen in detail in by Voyager 2.

    Solar System portal Astrobiology portal Astronomy portal. Archived from the original on 26 March Retrieved 27 December Retrieved 10 August Retrieved 5 November The Encyclopedia of the Solar System.

    In Pappalardo, Robert T. University of Arizona Press. The New York Times. Retrieved 13 March Milwaukee School of Engineering. Archived from the original on 9 June Archived from the original on 29 March Retrieved 8 September Retrieved 12 May Retrieved 14 May Retrieved 2 May Retrieved 27 April Students for the Exploration and Development of Space.

    Archived from the original on 13 July Retrieved 9 August Archived from the original on 5 January Archived from the original on 1 March Retrieved 29 March Journal of Geophysical Research.

    Retrieved 2 January Mass of Triton plus all smaller moons: Planetary Sciences Group, Brown University. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union.

    Moons and Rings of Jupiter. Archived from the original on 21 July Paul Scott Anderson, Earth and Sky. Howard, and Orkan M. Retrieved 20 October His picturesque details belong to anecdote and fable: The Rape of Europa by Titian Europa in a fresco at Pompeii , contemporary with Ovid.

    Europa velificans , "her fluttering tunic… in the breeze" mosaic, Zeugma Mosaic Museum. The name Europe , as a geographical term, was used by Ancient Greek geographers such as Strabo to refer to part of Thrace below the Balkan mountains.

    In the 8th century, ecclesiastical uses of "Europa" for the imperium of Charlemagne provide the source for the modern geographical term.

    The first use of the term Europenses , to describe peoples of the Christian, western portion of the continent, appeared in the Hispanic Latin Chronicle of , sometimes attributed to an author called Isidore Pacensis [36] in reference to the Battle of Tours fought against Muslim forces.

    Her name appeared on postage stamps celebrating the Council of Europe , which were first issued in The second series of euro banknotes is known as the Europa Series and bears her likeness in the watermark and hologram.

    The metal europium , a rare-earth element , was named in after the continent. The invention of the telescope revealed that the planet Jupiter , clearly visible to the naked eye and known to humanity since prehistoric times, has an attendant family of moons.

    These were named for male and female lovers of the god and other mythological persons associated with him. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    Redirected from Europa mythology. For other uses, see The Rape of Europa disambiguation. Europa and the Bull depicted by Asteas , c.

    Finley, The World of Odysseus , References in myth and art have been assembled by W. Indo-European poetry and myth.

    James Rennell, The geographical system of Herodotus examined and explained , Volume 1, Rivington , p. Revue des deux Mondes.

    The east face of Helicon: New International Encyclopedia 1st ed. Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life p Pausanias rendered the name Asterion 2.

    And if Europe was Sidonian? The Cambridge Ancient History , plates to vols. V and VI West 23 October The East Face of Helicon: Islam and the Making of Europe, to , New York: Royal Society of Chemistry.

    Retrieved from " https:

    Die Europa Video

    Europasaga (1/6) – Woher wir kommen - Ganze Folge Terra X Europa selbst ist Namensgeber für das entdeckte chemische Element Europium. Dänemark - verlässlicher Partner in der EU. Sie werden seit Jahren auch als Kandidat für den Karlspreis gehandelt. Wo fängt Europa an — wo hört es auf? Als Folge der Verarmung der Arbeiter entstand im Der Titel dieses Artikels ist mehrdeutig. Wir bitten um einen Moment Geduld, bis die Aktivierung abgeschlossen ist. Das ist alles schon gut so. Wo wir stehen — was uns bleibt. Auch der Bestand an Greifvögeln, wie Steinadler , Seeadler und Gänsegeier ist in den letzten Jahrhunderten stark dezimiert worden. Ich finde, dass das eine sehr gute Entscheidung ist. Diese Seite Lesen Bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte.

    europa die - opinion

    Schlaff hängen die Segel von den Masten. Clark stellt sich die Frage, warum diese Eroberung von Europa ausging und nicht etwa von dem mächtigen China. Die Verbindung mit dem Christentum — als Staatsreligion — verlieh dem Kontinent ein Fundament, das Macht, Glauben und Orientierung miteinander vereinte. Bitte versuchen Sie es erneut oder registrieren Sie sich neu. National Geographic Atlas of the World. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Das Ordensleben in Europa: Im Westen wird Europa von Küsten begrenzt. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Wir fahren erst einmal zurück nach Lissabon. Hatten die Spanier etwas entdeckt oder erobert, schwärmten eben die Portugiesen gen Westen aus. Die Republik Serbien nähert sich der EU an. Europafesto en Berlin. Und zeigen damit dem Rest der Welt, dass die uralten Prinzipien immer noch gelten. Jahrhundert Auseinandersetzungen zwischen Kaiser und Papst um die Vorherrschaft. Weblink offline IABot Wikipedia: Januar wählte der Landesverband Dr. Januar frank casino 011 (bonus) Die lateinische Sprache hat durch die römisch-katholische Kirche bis in die Neuzeit als Schriftsprache des Kontinents überleben können. Jahrhunderts Europameisterschaften zuerst im Eiskunstlauf gibt. Osbourne gilt die europa Legende des Heavy Metal und Hardrock. Ein buntes Völkchen hat sich da entwickelt seit der Steinzeit — und auch Christopher Clark als Australier ist dabei. Die europa solches steht es zwar unter der Souveränität des Vereinigten Königreichs, ist aber ebenfalls kein Teil davon. Europa selbst ist Namensgeber für das entdeckte chemische Element Europium. Jahrhundert regional auch Tatischderen Sprecheranteil aber seitdem sehr zurückgeht. Dublin, Hamburg, Stockholm, Bologna, Barcelona: Streng genommen ist er gar kein Kontinent, sondern ein Anhängsel Dakar rally, eine Halbinsel am Wm eishockey 2019 der "eurasischen Landmasse". Abschnitt Geographie gibt es zurzeit 46 souveräne Staaten ohne den Kosovodie ganz oder teilweise in Europa liegen. Retrieved 10 Casino albrecht Analysis of the unique cracks lining Europa rgl bgl evidence that it likely spun around a tilted axis at some point in time. Retrieved 8 March Callisto Europa Ganymede Io. Natural satellites of the Solar System. Retrieved 27 April Students for die europa Exploration and Development of Space. For other uses, see Europa. Civilisations TV Series Retrieved 20 April Retrieved 26 July Habitability of binary star systems Habitability of K-type main-sequence star systems Habitability of natural satellites Habitability of red dwarf systems 10^21 habitable zone Earth analog List of potentially habitable exoplanets Tholin Extraterrestrial liquid water Galactic habitable zone. Retrieved 23 October

    Observations of the surface have revealed that some of the molecular oxygen produced by radiolysis is not ejected from the surface. Because the surface may interact with the subsurface ocean considering the geological discussion above , this molecular oxygen may make its way to the ocean, where it could aid in biological processes.

    Exploration of Europa began with the Jupiter flybys of Pioneer 10 and 11 in and respectively. The first closeup photos were of low resolution compared to later missions.

    The images caused many scientists to speculate about the possibility of a liquid ocean underneath. Starting in , the Galileo space probe orbited Jupiter for eight years, until , and provided the most detailed examination of the Galilean moons to date.

    Conjectures regarding extraterrestrial life have ensured a high-profile for Europa and have led to steady lobbying for future missions.

    In , a Europa mission was recommended by the U. Planetary Science Decadal Survey. Another concept was Ice Clipper , [] which would have used an impactor similar to the Deep Impact mission—it would make a controlled crash into the surface of Europa, generating a plume of debris that would then be collected by a small spacecraft flying through the plume.

    Europa Orbiter — Its objective would be to characterize the extent of the ocean and its relation to the deeper interior. Instrument payload could include a radio subsystem, laser altimeter , magnetometer , Langmuir probe , and a mapping camera.

    This orbiter featured a special ice-penetrating radar that would allow it to scan below the surface. More ambitious ideas have been put forward including an impactor in combination with a thermal drill to search for biosignatures that might be frozen in the shallow subsurface.

    Another proposal put forward in calls for a large nuclear-powered "melt probe" cryobot that would melt through the ice until it reached an ocean below.

    So far, there is no evidence that life exists on Europa, but Europa has emerged as one of the most likely locations in the Solar System for potential habitability.

    This may be important in determining if Europa could be habitable. Although Europa, like the Earth, may possess an internal energy source from radioactive decay, the energy generated by tidal flexing would be several orders of magnitude greater than any radiological source.

    If it is too salty, only extreme halophiles could survive in that environment. Evidence suggests that hydrogen peroxide is abundant across much of the surface of Europa.

    Clay-like minerals specifically, phyllosilicates , often associated with organic matter on Earth, have been detected on the icy crust of Europa.

    Some scientists have speculated that life on Earth could have been blasted into space by asteroid collisions and arrived on the moons of Jupiter in a process called lithopanspermia.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Life on Europa. The smallest of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter.

    For other uses, see Europa. For the spaceship in the s television series Lost in Space, see Jupiter 2. For the airplane engine, see Bristol Jupiter.

    For other uses, see Jupiter disambiguation. Imaged on 7 September by Galileo spacecraft. Moment of inertia factor.

    List of lineae on Europa. List of geological features on Europa. In Pioneer 10 made the first closeup images of Europa — however the probe was too far away to obtain more detailed images.

    Europa seen in detail in by Voyager 2. Solar System portal Astrobiology portal Astronomy portal. Archived from the original on 26 March Retrieved 27 December Retrieved 10 August Retrieved 5 November The Encyclopedia of the Solar System.

    In Pappalardo, Robert T. University of Arizona Press. The New York Times. Retrieved 13 March Milwaukee School of Engineering. Archived from the original on 9 June Archived from the original on 29 March Retrieved 8 September Retrieved 12 May Retrieved 14 May Retrieved 2 May Retrieved 27 April Students for the Exploration and Development of Space.

    Archived from the original on 13 July Retrieved 9 August Archived from the original on 5 January Archived from the original on 1 March Retrieved 29 March Journal of Geophysical Research.

    Retrieved 2 January Mass of Triton plus all smaller moons: Planetary Sciences Group, Brown University. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union.

    Moons and Rings of Jupiter. Archived from the original on 21 July Paul Scott Anderson, Earth and Sky. Howard, and Orkan M. Retrieved 20 October Ringwald 29 February California State University, Fresno.

    Archived from the original on 20 September Retrieved 4 July Clues from Galileo Multispectral Imaging Observations".

    Improved modeling and non-synchronous rotation implications". Evidence for a mobile ice shell". Tidal heating of upwelling thermal plumes and the origin of lenticulae and chaos melting" PDF.

    Retrieved 20 December Implications for chaos formation" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 8 March Ice Thickness and the Plausibility of Melt-Through".

    Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society. Jackson School of Geosciences. Retrieved 16 November Geology of Europa", pp. Planetary and Space Science.

    Retrieved 2 October Astronomy Picture of the Day. Retrieved 8 March Retrieved 9 March Ice shell thickness models for Europa and comparisons with estimates based on flexure at ridges".

    Retrieved 29 May Further evidence for sulfuric acid hydrate". A compilation, new observations, and a recent summary".

    Journal of Geophysical Research: A Search for Organics on Europa. Whalen, Kelly; Lunine, Jonathan I. Retrieved 23 October Orig Life Evol Biosph.

    Archived from the original on 28 April Retrieved 18 April Retrieved 28 July Tidal flexing of the ice shell could create slightly warmer pockets of ice that rise slowly upward to the surface, carrying material from the ocean below.

    Earth and Planetary Science Letters. The University of Arizona Press. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Retrieved 16 December Retrieved 6 October Retrieved 17 December Retrieved 26 January Retrieved 26 September Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences.

    Retrieved 23 September Retrieved 17 August Michael; Nagy, Andrew F. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research.

    Archived from the original PDF on 25 February Retrieved on 23 July Europa Mission Campaign; Campaign Update: Archived from the original on 11 August Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 15 January ESA, 17 April Retrieved 20 April Archived from the original PDF on 8 October Retrieved 26 July This can especially be said of the story of Europa.

    It is common in ancient Greek mythology and geography to identify lands or rivers with female figures. Thus, Europa is first used in a geographic context in the Homeric Hymn to Delian Apollo , in reference to the western shore of the Aegean Sea.

    Barry adduces the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night", "[the country of] sunset", in opposition to Asu "[the country of] sunrise", i.

    In the territory of Phoenician Sidon , Lucian of Samosata 2nd century AD was informed that the temple of Astarte , whom Lucian equated with the moon goddess, was sacred to Europa:.

    They call it the temple of Astarte. I hold this Astarte to be no other than the moon-goddess. But according to the story of one of the priests this temple is sacred to Europa, the sister of Cadmus.

    Thus they do not agree that the temple in question is sacred to Europa. The paradox, as it seemed to Lucian, would be solved if Europa is Astarte in her guise as the full, "broad-faced" moon.

    She is generally said to be the daughter of Agenor , the Phoenician King of Tyre ; [15] the Syracusan poet Moschus [16] makes her mother Queen Telephassa "far-shining" but elsewhere her mother is Argiope "white-faced".

    It is generally agreed that she had two brothers, Cadmus , who brought the alphabet to mainland Greece, and Cilix who gave his name to Cilicia in Asia Minor , with the author of Bibliotheke including Phoenix as a third.

    After arriving in Crete, Europa had three sons fathered by Zeus: Minos , Rhadamanthus , and Sarpedon , the three of whom became the three judges of the Underworld when they died.

    In the more familiar telling she was seduced by the god Zeus in the form of a bull, who breathed from his mouth a saffron crocus [21] and carried her away to Crete on his back—to be welcomed by Asterion , [22] but according to the more literal, euhemerist version that begins the account of Persian-Hellene confrontations of Herodotus , [23] she was kidnapped by Cretans , who likewise were said to have taken her to Crete.

    The mythical Europa cannot be separated from the mythology of the sacred bull , which had been worshipped in the Levant.

    Europa does not seem to have been venerated directly in cult anywhere in classical Greece, [25] but at Lebadaea in Boeotia , Pausanias noted in the 2nd century AD that Europa was the epithet of Demeter —"Demeter whom they surname Europa and say was the nurse of Trophonios"—among the Olympians who were addressed by seekers at the cave sanctuary of Trophonios of Orchomenus , to whom a chthonic cult and oracle were dedicated: The mythographers [ who?

    While Europa and her helpers were gathering flowers, she saw the bull, caressed his flanks, and eventually got onto his back.

    Zeus took that opportunity and ran to the sea and swam, with her on his back, to the island of Crete. He then revealed his true identity, and Europa became the first queen of Crete.

    Zeus gave her a necklace made by Hephaestus [31] and three additional gifts: Talos , Laelaps and a javelin that never missed. Zeus later re-created the shape of the white bull in the stars, which is now known as the constellation Taurus.

    Some readers interpret as manifestations of this same bull the Cretan beast that was encountered by Heracles , the Marathonian Bull slain by Theseus and that fathered the Minotaur.

    His variant story may have been an attempt to rationalize the earlier myth; or the present myth may be a garbled version of facts—the abduction of a Phoenician aristocrat—later enunciated without gloss by Herodotus.

    Europa provided the substance of a brief Hellenistic epic written in the mid-2nd century BCE by Moschus , a bucolic poet and friend of the Alexandrian grammarian Aristarchus of Samothrace , born at Syracuse.

    His picturesque details belong to anecdote and fable: The Rape of Europa by Titian Europa in a fresco at Pompeii , contemporary with Ovid.

    Europa velificans , "her fluttering tunic… in the breeze" mosaic, Zeugma Mosaic Museum. The name Europe , as a geographical term, was used by Ancient Greek geographers such as Strabo to refer to part of Thrace below the Balkan mountains.

    In the 8th century, ecclesiastical uses of "Europa" for the imperium of Charlemagne provide the source for the modern geographical term.

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